Angiosarcomas associated with bone infarcts

Abstract

Objective. A bone infarct may occasionally dedifferentiate to osteogenic sarcoma, fibrosarcoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma. However, the association of an angiosarcoma with a bone infarct is extremely rare. Such an association is presented in three patients. Their clinical course is compared with that of patients with bone infarcts associated with other sarcomas. Design and patients. The three patients were men with a mean age of 43 years. Cases 1 and 3 presented with a pathological fracture at the site of the angiosarcoma. Plain radiography was done in the three patients, computed tomography (CT) was performed in cases 1 and 3 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in case 3. The femur was the site of the three tumors: midshaft in cases 1 and 3 and distal shaft in case 2. On the basis of the radiographic findings, and clinical examination, an open biopsy was performed for the three men, which confirmed the diagnosis of a high-grade angiosarcoma associated with a bone infarct. Results. Case 1 was treated with high-above knee amputation and is still alive after 18 months from the time of operation. Segmental resection of the distal femur with adjuvant chemotherapy and local irradiation was the treatment for case 2, who is still alive with no tumor recurrence on metastatic disease 3 years from the operation. Intramedullary rodding was done for case 3 who died 6 months later. Conclusion. The association of an angiosarcoma with a bone infarct has been established in only five cases. Although the number of such associations is small, it seems that such an association may be prognostically more or less the same as in those cases in which a bone infarct is associated with either osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma, where the survival rate is unfavorable. A cause-and-effect relationship may exist between a bone infarct and subsequent development of a bone sarcoma.

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